Type of genetic engineering

Gene knockout, gene knockin, gene overexpression can be further categorized as below. 

Type Segment type Characterization Technology options
Gene knockout Knockout, KO Systemic gene fragment knock out ESC Targeting, CRISPR
Conditional knockout, CKO Gene fragment knock out in specific tissues or cells 
ESC Targeting, CRISPR
KO-first Mating with Cre mouse to obtain reporter and knockout mice; mating with Flp mouse to obtain flox mice ESC Targeting, CRISPR
Gene knock-in Constitutive mutation Systemic introduction of genetic mutation  ESC Targeting, CRISPR
Conditional mutation Mutation introduced in specific tissues or cells 
ESC Targeting, CRISPR
Knockin Exclusive expression of exogenous genes ESC Targeting, CRISPR
Co-expression Exogenous gene is expressed without affecting the endogenous gene expression  ESC Targeting, CRISPR
Humanization The mouse endogenous gene was replaced with a human homologous gene ESC Targeting, CRISPR
Gene overexpression Random transgenesis Gene of interest randomly integrated into the mouse genome Pronuclear injection or Lentivirus infection
PiggyBAC transgenesis Gene of interest integrated into the transposase recognition sites of mouse genome Piggybac Transgene
Site-specific knockin Gene of interest specifically incorporated into safe harbor sites such as Rosa26 or H11 ESC Targeting, CRISPR

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